How to set up a new firm in Luxembourg.

How to set up a new firm in Luxembourg.

Decide to set up a new company, maybe your first company, is a thing to study well from the start. But from the reflection to the outcome, the path is not always smooth sailing. Businesses, governments, local, literature … all possibility of ending up in the wall.

To avoid this, our team proposes to follow with you or for you every step of your great creation projects. Sit back comfortably, tell us what you want to do and we will do all. From the choice of various professionals that work in the actual startup of your business through the completing administrative paperwork, we will make your life easier and make you win a very precious time, so you can concentrate on your real job!
We will advise professionals that we selected for their efficiency, we will inform you which documents you’ll need to do for your job, we will assist you to fill out paperwork and more. Discover in details the various steps by visiting the links that are above.

Before thinking …
Whatever the case, creating your first company, growing your business in the Benelux, re-organization of your group of companies, participations acquired in other companies, a great reflection need to be provided before anything. It is important to have a good visibility of your projects to determine the best solution for your expectations.
We will be extremely attentive to your needs, your specifications and goals. So we can give you our opinion on the feasibility at a Luxembourg company level.
We will review the tax side (optimizing your taxes), the social side (cost optimization of your staff) and the commercial side (optimizing your net margins). We determine the points on which we can find an optimization but also constraints to your projects.

Just do it !
Once your projects are clearly established, we can begin together to structure the foundation of your new company.
It all starts with the development of a draft for the statutes of the society.
We’ll detail the names of shareholders, the company name, the distribution of shares, the members of the management bodies, the headquarter, the date of holding the Annual General Meeting, if necessary the presence of the auditor, the management board etc… Regarding the name of the company, we will verify the uniqueness of the name to RCS because each company must have a unique name in Luxembourg.

Collection of Documents
Before continuing, we will collect a set of documents that will be needed for the bank, the notary and for us. You will find a complete list of required documents. These documents will be used to make an identification of beneficiaries whether as natural or legal person. We must always know the last physical beneficiary. This approach is clearly inscribed in the circular issued by the CSSF (Financial Sector Supervisory Commission), on the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. If you would like more information on this subject, we invite you to read this document of the CSSF : ( http://www.cssf.lu/en/supervision/financial-crime/aml-ctf/ )

List of the required documents :

Identity documents
– Natural person :
Obviously, we’ll need for all the steps all stakeholders’ identity documents in your draft constitution from the moment they occupy a role in company: shareholders, manager, director etc… Accepted identification documents are passport and national identity card. Check that the validity dates are always good.
! ! ! For information, the driving license is not a valid ID in Luxembourg.
– Legal person
We will need the identity of all individual entities that are beneficial owners of companies involved in the constitution. In addition, we will also need a newest extract from the trade register of companies in the country in which the company operates, and the statutes of the companies.

Proof of address
It is possible to provide several types of documents to verify your address.
This can be a certificate of residence, a document typically published by the municipality in which you reside, but also an electricity bill or internet subscription. For Belgian residents, it is possible to provide an extract of their identity card if it dates back less than a month.

Criminal record extract
It is imperative to provide a criminal record dating back less than 3 months. This document is required to introduce the trade permit application in Luxembourg. In many countries, it is possible to make this request directly through the Internet.

Tax notice
It is a document that is increasingly asked to justify the consistency of your purchases or investments. It will be necessary to provide this document for example in building a civil society. Indeed, this is part of the initiatives against money laundering. For example, if you make a cash purchase of 100.000 euros, but your tax notice highlights a non-taxation, it does bode well for the rest of your file…

Notarial certificate of non-bankruptcy
This is a statement made under oath before a notary in which you state not being personal bankruptcy and this not limited in time or space. If you are having difficulty obtaining this document, please contact us.
Here is a sample declaration of type:

CERTIFICATE

I, Master Name and Notary name, holds a Notarial Office at the Office Address
Certifies and hereby certify,

that Mr. Full name, residing at the Address and born in the Birthplace the Birthday

Justifying his identity by producing his ID number: Reference of the ID
Acting in his own name,

Told me, under oath, that at no time and in no place, until today, been the subject of a judgment declaring personal bankruptcy.
In witness whereof, I have issued this certificate to serve and to assert that right.
City of the notary office, the Date

Qualifications
Many professions are regulated in Luxembourg. The simple fact of wanting to trade requires a trade permit. For this grail, it will be necessary to justify either a higher education diploma or an equivalency according to European directives. It will also be possible for people who do not have a high school diploma, provide a certificate of professional experience of at least 5 years in the activity for which you wish to obtain a permit.

! ! ! All documents must be supplied in « ORIGINAL » version. Some documents require a little time to obtain, so do not hesitate to make requests at the earliest to be sure to have everything on time.

Bank account
It is now that we’re going to need some of the documents to proceed with the opening of a bank account in the name of the future company.
We will have a detailed description of your activities, present the people involved and provide the draft statutes of association to one of our contacts with our banking partner. This one will study your file and submit it to the compliance department (department in charge of assessing whether the files are compliant with the specifications of the bank). Once the acceptance is received, the financial advisor will proceed to open the account in order to proceed with the filing of the necessary funds in the company’s capital, i.e. 12.500,- € for LLC, or 31.000,- € for an Ltd .

The funds can be made in different ways: either in cash (will then be necessary proof from a bank of the origin of such funds) or by bank transfer or by check (beware, the check processing time is long enough and a fee is charged).

When the funds are available on the bank account, we receive a blocking certificate money for the company addressed to the notary, proof proving that social capital is at the disposal of the company.

Details of a LLC :

Method of establishment
The LLC may not proceed with the public offering of shares. It may only be incorporated by an act of incorporation signed by a notary by the founder or founders.
Proxy: All future shareholders do not have to appear personally before a notary. They may be represented by representatives provided with proxies.
Constitution
It includes the following statements:
• Identity of the signatories of the act;
• Legal form and name;
• Headquarters;
• Corporate purpose;
• Amount of subscribed capital and paid-up capital;
• Duration of the company;
Note that all subsequent modifications of the above points will require a new mandatory appearance before the notary (with the exception of point 1). This is what we call a statutory modification.
Denomination
The LLC can adopt as name:
• A particular denomination;
• The designation of its corporate purpose;
• A name with the name of one or more associates;
The name must be strictly unique to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Corporate Purpose
The purpose must reflect the actual activity to be performed within the company. It is based on this corporate purpose that will be assigned the trade permit. This corporate purpose can be social commerce activity (purchase, sale, trading of products or services), financial activities (Detention and optimization of Securities or Shares) or both at once.
Number of associates
To form an LLC, one associate is enough and the maximum number is set by law at 40 persons (natural or legal). Shareholders can be natural or legal persons (if authorized by their statutes to do such an operation).
No residency or citizenship is required. This means that a Luxembourg LLC can be formed by a non-resident or a company established in another country.
Social capital
The minimum amount of share capital is set at 12.500 €. This capital must be fully subscribed and paid. It is possible to build this capital either in cash or by contribution in kind. Given the character « Intuitu Personae », it is not necessary to have an auditor ratio for real and personal property brought to the capital.
Shares
The representing shares in the capital are always nominatives. They are represented by nominative participation certificates attesting to their registration in the LLC. The shares are freely transferable between associates. In case of transmission by death, the heirs are treated as associates. The assignment or transfer to third parties requires the approval of the general meeting, acting by a majority of ¾ of the share capital. The assignment must be established by notarial deed or by private deed. It will be published in the Register of Companies (RCS).
General Meeting
The holding is not required as the number of associates is not more than 25.
Management
The manager or managers are appointed by the associates, either in the deed of incorporation or subsequently. The manager or managers may be natural or legal persons. The law does not impose a condition of nationality or residence.
It should be noted that the trade permit is subject to various conditions, including personal repute and professional qualifications of the management.
The manager or managers are appointed for a limited time or indefinitely. In both cases, unless otherwise statutory provision, they can only be dismissed for legitimate reasons.
The manager has all powers that are not reserved to the General Meeting, to perform the acts necessary for the realization of the corporate purpose.
Status of the Manager
The management may be made free of charge or paid.
If the management is provided by the majority shareholder, the manager will adopt the self-employed. He will ensure himself the payment of social security contributions. If the management is occupied by a partner with strictly less than 25% of the shares (that is to say 24%), then it may be an employee of the company.
External Auditor
Only LLCs with more than 25 shareholders are subject to mandatory supervision by one or more auditors, shareholders or not, appointed in the memorandum of establishment. Any modification of one or more auditors shall be published in the RCS.

Details of a Ltd:

Method of establishment
The Ltd may be formed in two ways: by direct incorporation or by public subscription. Here we will discuss only about the first procedure. The direct incorporation process is to appear before the notary at least two shareholders, after the payment of their contributions.
Proxy: All future shareholders don’t have to appear personally before a notary. They may be represented by representatives provided with proxies.
Constitution
It includes the following statements:
• Identity of the signatories of the act;
• Legal form and name;
• Headquarters;
• Corporate purpose;
• Amount of subscribed capital and paid-up capital;
• Authorized capital if the procedure is retained;
• Categories and form of shares;
• If contributions in kind: name of the contributor and report of the external inputs;
• Possible advantages granted to founders;
• Number of shares excluding capital and related rights;
• Structure of the organs of the Ltd;
• Duration of the company;
Note that all subsequent changes of the previous points automatically require further appearance by the notary (with the exception of point 1). This is what we call a statutory modification.
Denomination
The Ltd can adopt as name:
• A particular denomination;
• The designation of its corporate purpose;
The name must be strictly unique to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Corporate Purpose
The corporate purpose must reflect the actual activity to be performed within the company. It is based on this corporate purpose that will be assigned the trade permit . This corporate purpose can be social commerce activity (buying, selling, trading products or services), financial activities (Detention and optimization of Securities or Shares) or both at once.
Number of shareholders
To form a Ltd, a single shareholder is enough and the maximum number is not fixed by law. Shareholders can be natural or legal persons (if authorized by their statutes to do such an operation).
No residency or citizenship is required. This means that a Luxembourg Ltd may be formed by a non-resident or a company established in another country.
Social capital
The minimum amount of share capital is set at € 31,000.00. It can be expressed in euro or in foreign currency, if it is convertible. This capital must be fully subscribed.
Each share must be paid at least a quarter or by payment in cash or by contributions in kind (ratio of an external input required).
Legally, the contributors in kind are required to release all of their subscription within five years, while cash providers have no time limit. Nevertheless, according to the needs of the company’s operations, the Board of Directors made the calls necessary funds to subscribers.
The shares
The shares representing the capital may be nominative or to bearer. They may nevertheless become to bearer when the capital was fully paid. Unless otherwise provided in the statutes, all shares have equal rights and each share entitled to one vote.
The shares are freely transferable.
General Meeting of Shareholders
The general meeting of shareholders shall have the widest powers to adopt or ratify any action concerning the Company.

There are two types of assembly:

· Ordinary General Meeting :

It is called at least once a year, date and time listed in the statutes. The annual accounts are presented, and the report of the directors and commissioners. It discusses the balance sheet and determines the allocation of the results. It also discharges the directors for their management and carries out any statutory appointments.

· Extraordinary General Meeting :

Board of Directors and Commissioners have the right to convene a general meeting at any time if they consider that the corporate interest requires so; they have an obligation to do so, or within a month when 1 / 5th of shareholders upon written request indicating the agenda, either within two months, when the loss reached half of the share capital.
Board of directors
The Board of Directors consists of a minimum of 3 members, shareholders or not. In the case of a single shareholder, the administrator number can be limited to 1 if the status provide for this scenario. The directors may be natural or legal persons. The law does not impose a condition of nationality or residence.
It should be noted that the trade permit is subject to various conditions, including personal repute and professional qualifications of directors.
Directors are appointed by the general meeting of shareholders for a maximum term of 6 years, but renewable.
The board of directors has all powers that are not reserved to the General Meeting, to perform the acts necessary for the realization of the corporate purpose. Any statutory clause limiting the powers of the directors would be binding on third parties. Generally, the Board of directors delegates, with the agreement of the general meeting, the company’s daily management to a « managing director ». It is the latter which will be holder of the trade permit.
External Auditor
The internal monitoring of the company is entrusted to one or more auditors appointed by the general meeting of shareholders for a term of up to 6 years, but renewable. Commissioners may be natural or legal persons.
The commissioners have unlimited right of supervision and control of the financial and accounting situation. They should receive the Board of Directors twice a year on the assets and liabilities of the company, they control the annual accounts and the annual report before submission to the general meeting and they report on their work at the General Meeting.
Monitoring by one or more auditor (s) of companies is mandatory in any society which, at the balance sheet date exceeds the limits of two of the three following criteria:
• Balance sheet total: 3,125 million EUR
• Net sales: 6,25 million EUR
• Staff: 50

The trade permit :

The regulation of the activities
All commercial, craft and industrial activities have been subject to the condition of obtaining a trade permit issued by the Ministry of Middle Classes (for general inquiries). The delivery may need the approval of other ministries such as Economy and Foreign Trade, the Ministry of Justice or the one of Transport.

Deliverance conditions
The pre-requisites for obtaining the trade permit are:
• Legal conditions of qualification and respectability.
• Presence of a real permanent establishment for the society (Not a mailbox).
It should be noted that the trade permit is issued to a natural person, not a legal one. Therefore, it is valid as the manager or the CEO in the daily management in the company remains unchanged. In case of holder’s departure of the trade permit, it is imperative to make a new request and within a maximum period of 6 months.
A person may hold several trade permit to herself alone. Conversely, it is also possible to have multiple people within the same company bearers of a trade permit for different business sectors.

Modalities
Respectability
The future holder of a trade permit must demonstrate his respectability. To do this, he must firstly provide a criminal record. This record does not highlight convictions to question his integrity or any deprivation of his civil rights and that regardless of the country of origin. If such a statement appeared and that the sentence has been served, this should not be an obstacle to the deliverance.
He must also provide a notarial certificate of non-bankruptcy personal not limited in time or space. This certificate takes the form of a statement made under oath before a notary that the person is not personally bankrupt.
Qualifications
Depending on the activity you wish to exercise, it will be asked a qualifying justification in the said field. One of the simplest ways is to produce a diploma of higher education in relation to the activity pursued. If you wish to legal advice, you will be asked a Master in Law for example.
However, it is also possible to obtain a trade permit by providing an official certificate of professional experience of more than 5 years in the same activity. This is usually an « EC certificate ».

National competent authorities to issue an EC certificate (Directive No. 99/42 / EEC of 7 June 1999)

For artisan activities and tradespeople, this is typically the certificate as to the activities in the country of origin in accordance with Directive No 99/42 / EEC of 7 June 1999.

The national competent authorities for issuing the certificate are:
• Germany : Handwerkskammern oder Industrie- und Handelskammern
• Belgium : Service Public Fédéral, Economie, P.M.E., Classes Moyennes & Energie
• Denmark : Industriradet
• Estonia : Estonian Ministery of Education and Research
• France : Chambre des Métiers ou Chambre de Commerce et de l’Industrie (pour les indépendants) et la Direction Départementale du travail et de l’emploi (pour les salariés)
• Great Britain : Department for education and skills
• Greece : Chambre des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
• Italy : Camera di commercio,industria, artigianato e agricoltura (pour les indépendants) et Ispettorati provinciali del lavoro (pour les salariés)
• Ireland : FAS, Training and Employment Authority (certificate of experience Unit)
• Netherlands : Hoofbedrijfschap ambachten
• Portugal : Confederaçâo da Indûstria Portuguesa (pour les independents) et la Inspecçâo do trabalho ou Conferaçao do Comercio portugues (pour les salariés)
• Poland : Ministertwo Gospodarki i Pracy

For the transport activities, this is the certificate about the activities in the country of origin in accordance with Directive NO96 / 26 / EEC of 29 April 1996.

The national competent authorities for issuing the certificate are:
• Belgium : le Ministère des Transports à Bruxelles
• Germany : Industrie- und Handelskammer
• France : le Ministère des Transports
[Source : Ministry of Middle Classes]

Stable establishment
The trade permit is issued for society in the name of a natural person. Consequently, the company must have a permanent establishment in Luxembourg responding to the requirements of the law on the establishment of 2 September 2011. So today, it is impossible to consider the establishment of a company in Luxembourg aspiring to do business (i.e. to issue invoices between the company and customers) without a real physical and private office.

The notary
We have also conveyed the same information to the notary with whom we work so that his study could write the definitive statutes of the company and verify that they are conform to the Luxembourg regulations. The notary is the only professional in Luxembourg allowed to form a company (this applies to commercial and financial companies).
Once the statutes are written, we all fix an appointment to present you before the notary to sign the statutes so that the notary can then send all documents to the administrations in charge of corporate management in particular Trading Companies Registry (RCS). After signature, the notary will hand us a certificate of release of capital funds to bank so that the company can immediately dispose of his cash.
Your company is established ! ! !
It exists officially.
Of course our work is not finished yet because even if legally speaking your company is existing, it is not yet ready to trade.
We’ll have to wait about 2 – 3 weeks for the latter to be registered at the RCS with an identification number.
The operations to follow are: the original listing application to the system of EU VAT, the application of a trade permit to start and membership of the Joint Centre of Social Security.

The good management :

The establishment
Good management of your company begins even before operations begin. Since the creation …
We will try to draw your attention to some points that you should always keep in mind to ensure the durability of your business. We will start with some ideas that we must absolutely give up!

Fictitious company or mailbox
This is unfortunately the most commonly acquired idea !

« Now that I have a company in Luxembourg, I will no longer pay tax »

WRONG !!!

Luxembourg is not a tax haven, but a country with a moderate taxation. If you are looking to not pay taxes, go your way and go to the side of the offshore companies. Please be aware that today, do not pay a minimum tax is utopian! Luxembourg companies are fully taxable. However, taxation is less heavy than some other neighboring countries.
« For my business, I do not need Office, but just a domiciliation/mailbox because either I work from home, either I am frequently on the move. »

WRONG !!!

A corporation must have necessarily a physical, private office and allows for further commercial activity defined in the corporate purpose of the company. This is very clearly defined in the law on the establishment in Luxembourg from the 02 September 2011. Otherwise, you will be carrying illegally because you will not be able to get your trade permit to do business in Luxembourg.

Many have interpreted this requirement to have a physical office as punishment because obviously this creates more substantial costs than a domiciliation. In our view, we believe that this is something beneficial for the client. In large number of cases, the company’s commercial activity takes place in a neighboring country, maybe even in the country where you currently reside. However, the tax administrations of neighboring countries have an unfortunate tendency to want to impose anything that happens on their territory. The first angle is generally the requalification of the permanent establishment of your company, i.e. they will try to show that you manage your company from home (as in our example). To have maximum incriminating, the administrations will apply for European cooperation in Luxembourg so that it can truly determine the existence (or not) of the company. If the Luxembourg authorities come to check your company and they realize that the head office is in domiciliary center or even your office is always closed, they will take steps to remedy one hand and close your company and moreover transmit information like what they found no local activity of the company.

To defend the economic reality of your company in Luxembourg, it is not enough to just have one office in a business center. You have to truly live this company. And that means several things. First, of course, have all the documents in this office showing real activity of the company. Second, the company’s manager must be regularly present in Luxembourg to perform all the common management operations such as sending invoices, vendor payments, marketing development, organization of meetings etc… By doing all that, which ultimately reflects a real business, you build consistency in your structure, key elements in the event of administrative control.

Good habits

A good management is not something that should be done occasionally, but throughout the life of your business. Naturally, you must take into consideration the size of the structure to adopt the good organization. A big company can put more means at its disposal that small business hiring a person. For large projects with vocation to international development, we strongly advise the establishment of employees to monitor daily operations. Having a company in Luxembourg involves organization and costs of the organization, but it takes a minimum of consistency to ensure consistency of arrangements. It is inconceivable to currently still see companies who transit hundreds of millions of euros by Luxembourg and renting an office of 5 m² without anybody inside…

It is important to define a person who will be in charge of the daily management. This person will come as regularly as possible to the office to handle mail, update company documents with customer’s specifications, suppliers, invoices of purchases and sales, which will handle the management of the phone, to prepare the documents for accounting etc…

« I will take care of administrative files later because I do not have time, I have to develop my business. »

In companies with small and medium sizes, we often find that executive or entrepreneur will devote his time primarily to commercial development rather than holding its administrative records and that is all natural. But it is a trap to avoid. In Luxembourg as in other European countries, there is an administrative schedule to comply with the filing statement to be accompanied by a numbers of publication. But if the documents are not updated, your accountant will not be able to arrange which will result in fines imposed by the different administrations as Direct Taxation (IS) or Recording and Domains (VAT). If you accumulate too many fines, besides the fact that it will cost you, it will mainly trigger alerts about your company that may lead to an accounting control, which believe us will make you lose much more time and money if the documents had been processed in a timely manner.
Marie-Christine Gutiérrez Breesch
Associée.
Sources :
La Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier : www.cssf.lu
Le guide administratif du Luxembourg : www.guichet.lu
Le centre d’affaires Luxbusiness.

Créez votre entreprise au Luxembourg

Créez votre entreprise au Luxembourg , avoir une structure luxembourgeoise

D ’abord, on y pense …

Quelque soit le cas de figure – la création de votre première société, le développement de vos activités au Benelux, la ré-organisation de votre groupe de sociétés, la prise de participations dans d’autres entreprises, … – une bonne analyse est nécessaire avant d’agir !

Il faut tenir compte de vos attentes, de votre cahier des charges, de vos objectifs ainsi que de la faisabilité au niveau d’une société luxembourgeoise.

Nous vous aiderons à passer en revue le côté fiscal (optimisation de vos impôts), le côté social (optimisation du coût de votre personnel) et le côté commercial (optimisation de vos marges nettes).

Ensemble, nous déterminerons ainsi les points sur lesquels nous pourrons maximiser une optimisation mais également comment contourner les contraintes liées à vos projets.

Just do it ! ! !

Une fois vos projets clairement établis, nous allons pouvoir commencer ensemble à structurer les fondations de votre nouvelle société.

Tout commence par l’élaboration d’un business plan fouillé ainsi qu’une ébauche de statuts pour votre structure.

Concernant le nom de la société, il nous faudra vérifier l’unicité de ce nom au RCS car chaque société doit avoir un nom unique au Luxembourg.

  1. – Collecte de documents

    Avant tout, nous allons vous demander de nous fournir un ensemble de documents originaux qui seront nécessaires au bon déroulement de chaque

    étape de la création de votre entreprise, que ce soit pour la banque, le notaire ou

    encore nos obligations internes légales.

    Ils serviront à identifier les bénéficiaires économiques, qu’ils soient des personnes physiques ou des personnes morales.

    Nous devons toujours connaitre le dernier bénéficiaire physique. Cette démarche est inscrite très clairement dans la circulaire émanant de la CSSF (Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier), relative à la lutte contre le blanchiment d’argent et financement du terrorisme. Si vous souhaitez obtenir plus d’information sur ce sujet, nous vous invitons à lire ce document de la CSSF.

    Documents requis pour la création d’une entreprise :

    Personne physique

    Pièces d’identité

    Bien évidemment, nous allons avoir besoin pour l’ensemble des démarches des pièces d’identité de tous les intervenants dans votre projet de constitution à partir du moment où ils occuperont un rôle dans la société : actionnaires, gérant, administrateur etc…Les pièces d’identité acceptées sont le Passeport et la carte nationale d’identité. Bien vérifier que les dates de validité sont toujours bonnes. Pour information, le permis de conduire n’est pas une pièce d’identité valable au Luxembourg.

    Personne morale

    Nous aurons besoin des pièces d’identité de toutes les personnes physiques qui sont bénéficiaires économiques des sociétés intervenant dans la constitution. En complément, nous aurons également besoin d’un extrait du registre de commerce des sociétés récent du pays où est implantée la société, ainsi que les statuts des sociétés.

    Justificatif de domicile

    Il est possible de fournir plusieurs types de documents pour justifier de votre adresse.

    Cela peut être un certificat de résidence, document généralement édité par la commune dans laquelle vous résidez, mais également une facture d’électricité ou d’abonnement Internet. Pour les résidents belges, il est possible de fournir une extrait de leur carte d’identité si celui-ci date de moins d’un mois.

    Extrait de casier judiciaire

    Il est impératif de fournir un extrait de casier judiciaire datant de moins de 3 mois. Ce document est requis pour introduire la demande d’autorisation de commerce au Luxembourg. Dans de nombreux pays, il est possible de faire cette demande directement par Internet.

    Avis d’imposition

    C’est un document qui est de plus en plus demandé afin de justifier de la cohérence de vos achats ou investissements. Il sera nécessaire de fournir ce document par exemple lors de la constitution d’une société civile. En effet, cela s’inscrit dans les démarches de lutte contre le blanchiment. Par exemple, si vous faites un achat au comptant de 100.000 euros, mais que votre avis d’imposition met en évidence une non-imposition, cela n’augure rien de bon pour la suite de votre dossier…

    Attestation notariale de non faillite personnelle

    Il s’agit d’une déclaration faite sous serment devant un notaire dans laquelle vous déclarez ne pas être en faillite personnelle et ce non limitée dans le temps ni dans l’espace. Si vous rencontrez des difficultés à obtenir ce document, n’hésitez pas à prendre contact avec nous.

    Voici un exemple de type de déclaration :

    ATTESTATION

    Je soussigné, Maître Prénom et Nom du Notaire, titulaire d’un Office Notarial à Adresse de l’office

    Certifie et atteste par la présente,

    que Monsieur Nom et prénom, demeurant à Adresse, né à Lieu de naissance le date de naissance

    Ayant justifié de son identité par la production de sa carte d’identité numéro : références de la pièce d’identité Agissant en son nom personnel,

    A déclaré devant moi, sous la foi du serment, qu’il n’a à aucun moment, et en aucun lieu, jusqu’à ce jour, fait l’objet d’un jugement le déclarant en faillite personnelle.

    En foi de quoi, j’ai délivré la présente attestation pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

    Ville de l’office notarial, le date

    Diplômes

    Un grand nombre de professions sont réglementées au Luxembourg. Le simple fait de vouloir faire du commerce nécessite une autorisation de commerce. Pour obtenir ce graal, il sera nécessaire de justifier soit d’un diplôme d’enseignement supérieur, soit d’une équivalence selon les directives européennes. Il sera également possible pour les personnes ne disposant pas de diplôme d’enseignement secondaire, de fournir une attestation d’expérience professionnelle d’au minimum 5 ans dans l’activité pour laquelle vous souhaitez obtenir une autorisation.

    Tous les documents sont à fournir en version « ORIGINALE ». Certains documents demandent un peu de temps pour l’obtention, alors n’hésitez pas à faire les demandes au plus tôt pour être sûr de tout avoir au moment voulu.

  2. – Compte bancaire

    C’est maintenant que nous allons avoir besoin d’une partie des documents pour procéder à l’ouverture d’un compte bancaire au nom de la future société.

    Nous allons devoir créer un dossier reprenant une description détaillée de vos activités, présenter les personnes impliquées et fournir le brouillon des statuts à un établissement bancaire.

    Ce dernier va étudier votre dossier puis le soumettre à son service compliance (service en charge d’évaluer si les dossiers sont conformes aux cahiers des charges de la banque).

    Une fois l’acceptation reçue, le conseiller financier va procéder à l’ouverture du compte afin de procéder au dépôt des fonds nécessaires au capital de la société, à savoir 12.500,- € pour une Sarl, ou 31.000,- € pour une SA.

    Les fonds peuvent être apportés de différentes manières : soit en espèces (Il faudra alors un justificatif de provenance des fonds d’une banque par exemple), soit par virement bancaire ou encore par chèque (attention, le délai de traitement des chèques est assez long et des frais sont facturés).

    Des lors que les fonds sont présents sur le compte bancaire, nous recevrons un

    certificat de blocage de l’argent pour la société adressé au notaire, justificatif prouvant que le capital social est à la disposition de la société.

  3. – Le notaire

    Dans un même temps, nous nous occupons de transmettons vos informations au notaire afin que son étude puisse rédiger les statuts définitifs de la société et vérifier qu’ils sont conformes à la réglementation luxembourgeoise.

    Le notaire est le seul professionnel au Luxembourg autorisé à constituer une société (ceci est valable pour les sociétés commerciales et financières).

    Une fois les statuts rédigés, nous fixerons ensemble un rendez vous pour vous présenter par devant le notaire afin de signer les statuts. Le notaire enverra ensuite l’ensemble des documents au Registre de Commerce des Sociétés (RCS).

    Après signature, le notaire nous remettra un certificat de déblocage des fonds du capital social à remettre à la banque pour que la société puisse immédiatement disposer de ses liquidités.

    Voilà, c’est fait. Votre société est constituée !

    Elle existe officiellement.

    Naturellement notre travail n’est pas encore terminé car même si juridiquement parlant votre société est existante, elle n’est pas encore prête pour commercer.

    Il faudra maintenant patienter entre 2 et 4 semaines pour que cette dernière soit enregistrée au RCS avec un numéro d’identification.

    Dès l’obtention de la preuve de l’enregistrement, , nous allons procéder aux opérations suivantes :

    • Demande de l’autorisation d’établissement.

    • Inscription initiale au régime de la TVA Intracommunautaire,

    • Affiliation au Centre Commun de la Sécurité Sociale.

    Types de sociétés

    La SàRL ( société à responsabilité limitée)

    Mode de constitution

    Elle ne peut être constituée que par un acte de constitution signé par devant notaire par le ou les fondateurs.

    Procuration : Tous les futurs actionnaires n’ont pas à comparaître personnellement devant notaire. Ils peuvent se faire représenter par des mandataires munis de procurations.

    La SARL ne peut procéder à l’émission publique de parts sociales.

  4. Acte constitutif

    Il comprend les mentions suivantes :

    • Identité des signataires de l’acte;

    • Forme sociale et dénomination;

    • Siège social;

    • Objet social;

    • Montant du capital souscrit et du capital libéré;

    • Durée de la société;

      A noter que toutes modifications ultérieures d’un des points précédents nécessitera obligatoire un nouveau passage devant le notaire,

      à l’exception du point 1.

      C’est ce que l’on appelle une modification statutaire.

      Dénomination

      La SARL peut adopter comme dénomination :

    • une dénomination particulière;

    • La désignation de son objet social;

    • une raison sociale comportant le nom d’un ou plusieurs associés;

      La dénomination doit être strictement unique au Grand Duché du Luxembourg. Objet social

      L’objet social doit refléter l’activité réelle qui sera exercée au sein de la société. C’est sur base de cet objet social que sera attribué l’autorisation de commerce. Cet objet social peut revêtir

      • une activité de commerce (achat, vente, négoce de produits ou services),

      • une activité financière (Détention et optimisation de Titres ou Actions)

        ou les deux à la fois.

        Nombre d’associés

        Pour former une SARL, un seul associé suffit et le nombre maximum est fixé par la loi à 40 personnes (physiques ou morales).

        Les associés peuvent être des personnes physiques ou morales (à condition qu’ elles soient autorisées par leurs statuts à faire une telle opération).

        Aucune condition de résidence ou de nationalité n’est requise.

        Ce qui signifie qu’une Sàrl luxembourgeoise peut être constitué par un non- résident ou une société établie dans un autre pays.

        Capital social

        Le montant minimum du capital social est fixé à 12.500,- €. Ce capital doit être intégralement souscrit et libéré.

        Il est possible de constituer ce capital soit en numéraire, soit en apport en nature. Compte tenu du caractère « Intuitu Personae », il n’est pas nécessaire d’avoir un rapport de réviseur pour les biens meubles et immeubles apportés au capital

        Les parts sociales

        Les parts sociales représentatives du capital sont toujours nominatives.

        Elles sont représentées par des certificats nominatifs de participation qui

        attestent de leur inscription au registre de la SARL. Les parts sont librement cessibles entre associés.

        En cas de transmission pour cause de décès, les héritiers sont assimilés à des associés.

        La cession ou transmission à des tiers requiert l’accord de l’assemblée générale, statuant à la majorité des ¾ du capital social.

        La cession doit être constatée par acte notarié ou par acte sous seing privé.

        Elle devra faire l’objet d’une publication au Registre de Commerce des Sociétés (RCS).

        Assemblée générale

        La tenue n’est pas obligatoire tant que le nombre d’associés n’est pas supérieur à 25.

        Gérance

        Le ou les gérants sont nommés par les associés, soit dans l’acte de constitution, soit postérieurement.

        Le ou les gérants peuvent être des personnes physiques ou des personnes morales.

        La loi n’impose pas de condition de nationalité ou de résidence.

        Il est à noter que l’autorisation de commerce est subordonnée à diverses conditions, dont l’honorabilité personnelle et la qualification professionnelle de la gérance.

        Le ou les gérants sont nommés pour une durée limitée ou sans limitation de durée. Dans les deux cas et sauf disposition statutaire contraire, ils ne sont révocables que pour des causes légitimes.

        La gérance dispose de tous les pouvoirs qui ne sont pas réservés à l’assemblée générale, pour accomplir les actes nécessaires à la réalisation de l’objet social.

        Statut du gérant

        La gérance peut être faite à titre gracieux ou rémunérée.

        Si la gérance est assurée par l’associé majoritaire, le gérant adoptera le statut

        d’indépendant.

        Il assurera lui-même le paiement de ses cotisations sociales.

        Si la gérance est occupée par un associé disposant de moins de 25 % des parts sociales strictement (c’est-à-dire 24%), il pourra alors être salarié de la société.

        Commissaire aux comptes

        Seules les SàRL comptant plus de 25 associés sont soumises à la surveillance obligatoire par un ou plusieurs commissaires aux comptes, associés ou non, nommés dans l’acte de constitution.

        Toute modification d’un ou plusieurs commissaires aux comptes devra faire l’objet d’une publication au RCS.

        Types de sociétés

        La S. A.

        Mode de constitution

        La SA signifie Société Anonyme et peut être constituée selon deux modalités :

        • par constitution directe ou

        • par souscription publique.

        Nous ne parlerons ici que de la première procédure.

        La procédure de constitution directe consiste à faire comparaître devant notaire deux actionnaires au moins, après versement de leurs apports.

        Procuration : Tous les futurs actionnaires n’ont pas à comparaître personnellement devant notaire.

        Ils peuvent se faire représenter par des mandataires munis de procurations.

        Acte constitutif

        Il comprend les mentions suivantes :

    • Identité des signataires de l’acte;

    • Forme sociale et dénomination;

    • Siège social;

    • Objet social;

    • Montant du capital souscrit et du capital libéré;

    • Montant du capital autorisé si cette procédure est retenue;

    • Catégories et forme des actions;

    • Si apport en nature : nom de l’apporteur et rapport du commissaire aux apports;

    • Avantages éventuels consentis aux fondateurs;

    • Nombre de titres hors capital et droits y afférents;

    • Structure des organes de la SA;

    • Durée de la société;

      A noter que toutes modifications ultérieures d’un des points précédents nécessitera obligatoirement un nouveau passage devant le notaire, à l’exception du point 1.

      C’est ce que l’on appellera une modification statutaire.

      Dénomination

      La SA peut adopter comme dénomination :

    • une dénomination particulière;

    • La désignation de son objet social;

      La dénomination doit être strictement unique au Grand Duché du Luxembourg. Objet social

      L’objet social doit refléter l’activité réelle qui sera exercée au sein de la société. C’est sur base de cet objet social que sera attribuée l’autorisation de commerce. Cet objet social peut revêtir :

      • une activité de commerce (achat, vente, négoce de produits ou services),

      • une activité financière (Détention et optimisation de Titres ou Actions)

        ou les deux à la fois.

        Nombre d’actionnaires

        Pour former une SA, un seul actionnaire suffit et le nombre maximum n’est pas fixé par la loi.

        Les actionnaires peuvent être des personnes physiques ou morales, à condition qu’elles soient autorisées par leurs statuts à faire une telle opération.

        Aucune condition de résidence ou de nationalité n’est requise.

        Ce qui signifie qu’une SA luxembourgeoise peut être constituée par un non- résident ou une société établie dans un autre pays.

        Capital social

        Le montant minimum du capital social est fixé à 31.000,00 EUR.

        Il peut être exprimé en EURO ou dans une monnaie étrangère, si elle est convertible.

        Ce capital doit être intégralement souscrit.

        Chaque action doit être libérée au moins d’un quart, soit par un versement en numéraire, soit par des apports en nature (rapport d’un commissaire aux apports nécessaire).

        Légalement, les apporteurs en nature sont tenus de libérer la totalité de leur souscription dans un délai de cinq ans, tandis que les apporteurs en espèces n’ont pas de limite dans le temps. Néanmoins, selon les besoins des activités de la société, le Conseil d’Administration fait les appels de fonds nécessaires aux souscripteurs.

        Les actions

        Les actions représentatives du capital peuvent être nominatives ou au porteur. Elles ne peuvent néanmoins devenir au porteur que quand le capital a été entièrement libéré.

        Sauf disposition contraire dans les statuts, toutes les actions ont les mêmes droits et chaque action donne droit à une voix.

        Les actions sont librement cessibles.

        Assemblée générale des actionnaires

        L’assemblée générale des actionnaires a les pouvoirs les plus étendus pour faire ou ratifier les actes qui intéressent la société. Il existe deux types d’assemblée :

        • assemblée générale ordinaire : elle est convoquée au moins une fois par an, la date et l’heure figurant dans les statuts. Les comptes annuels y sont présentés, ainsi que le rapport des administrateurs et des commissaires. Elle discute le bilan et décide de l’affectation des résultats. Elle donne également décharge aux administrateurs pour leur gestion et procède aux nominations statutaires éventuelles.

        • assemblée générale extraordinaire : le conseil d’administration et les commissaires ont le droit de convoquer l’assemblée générale à tout moment quand ils considèrent que l’intérêt social l’exige ; ils ont l’obligation de le faire, soit dans un délai d’un mois quand 1/5ème des actionnaires en font la demande écrite en indiquant l’ordre du jour, soit dans un délai de deux mois, quand la perte atteint la moitié du capital social.

        Conseil d’administration

        Le conseil d’administration est composé au minimum de 3 membres, associés ou non. Dans le cas d’un actionnaire unique, le nombre d’administrateur peut être limité à 1 si les statuts prévoient ce cas de figure.

        Les administrateurs peuvent être des personnes physiques ou des personnes morales.

        La loi n’impose pas de condition de nationalité ou de résidence.

        Il est à noter que l’autorisation de commerce est subordonnée à diverses conditions, dont l’honorabilité personnelle et la qualification professionnelle des administrateurs.

        Les administrateurs sont nommés par l’assemblée générale des actionnaires pour un mandat de maximum 6 ans, mais renouvelable.

        Le conseil d’administration dispose de tous les pouvoirs qui ne sont pas réservés à l’assemblée générale, pour accomplir les actes nécessaires à la réalisation de l’objet social. Toute clause statutaire limitant les pouvoirs des administrateurs

        serait inopposable aux tiers. Généralement, le conseil d’administration délègue,

        avec l’accord de l’assemblée générale, la gestion journalière de la société à un « administrateur-délégué ». C’est ce dernier qui sera détenteur de l’autorisation de commerce.

        Commissaire aux comptes

        La surveillance interne de la société est confiée à un ou plusieurs commissaires aux comptes, nommés par l’assemblée générale des actionnaires pour un mandat de 6 ans maximum, mais renouvelable. Les commissaires peuvent être des personnes physiques ou des personnes morales.

        Les commissaires disposent d’un droit illimité de surveillance et de contrôle de la situation financière et comptable. Ils doivent recevoir du conseil d’administration un rapport semestriel sur la situation active et passive de la société, ils contrôlent les comptes annuels et le rapport de gestion avant leur présentation à l’assemblée générale et ils rendent compte de leur mission à l’assemblée générale.

        La surveillance par un ou plusieurs réviseur(s) d’entreprises est obligatoire dans toute société qui, à la date de clôture du bilan, dépasse les limites chiffrées de 2 des 3 critères suivants :

    • Somme du bilan : 3,125 millions d’EUR

    • Chiffre d’affaires net : 6,25 millions d’EUR

    • Personnel : 50

      L’autorisation d’établissement.

      La réglementation des activités

      Toutes les activités commerciales, artisanales et industrielles sont préalablement soumises à la condition d’obtention d’une autorisation de commerce délivrée par le Ministère des Classes Moyennes (pour les demandes générales).

      La délivrance peut nécessiter l’aval d’autres ministères comme celui de l’Economie et du Commerce Extérieur, le ministère de la Justice ou encore celui du Transport.

      Conditions de délivrance

      Les conditions pré-requises pour l’obtention de cette autorisation d’établissement sont :

    • Conditions légales de qualification et d’honorabilité.

    • Présence d’un établissement stable réel pour l’entreprise. Pas une boite aux lettres !

      Il est à noter que l’autorisation d’établissement est délivrée à une personne physique et non à une personne morale.

      En conséquence, elle est valable tant que le gérant ou l’administrateur délégué à la gestion journalière reste inchangée dans l’entreprise.

      En cas de départ de la personne titulaire de l’autorisation, il faut impérativement faire une nouvelle demande et ce dans un délai maximum de 6 mois.

      Une personne peut cumuler plusieurs autorisation d’établissement à elle-seule. A contrario, il est également possible d’avoir plusieurs personnes au sein de la même société porteurs d’une autorisation de commerce pour les secteurs d’activités différents.

      Modalités

      Honorabilité

      Le futur porteur d’une autorisation d’établissement doit faire preuve de son honorabilité.

      Pour ce faire, il doit d’une part fournir un extrait de casier judiciaire.

      Ce casier ne doit pas mettre en évidence de condamnations visant à remettre en cause son intégrité ou une quelconque déchéance de ses droits civiques et ce quelques soit le pays de provenance.

      A noter que si une telle mention apparaissait et que la peine a été purgé, cela ne devrait pas être un obstacle à la délivrance.

      Il doit en outre fournir une attestation notariale de non-faillite personnelle non limitée dans le temps ni dans l’espace. Cette attestation revêt la forme d’une déclaration faite sous serment devant un notaire que la personne n’est pas personnellement en faillite.

      Qualifications

      En fonction de l’activité que vous souhaitez exercer, il sera demandé une justification de qualification dans le dit domaine.

      Un des moyens le plus simple est de produire un diplôme d’enseignement supérieur en relation avec l’activité poursuivie.

      Il est toutefois possible d’obtenir également une autorisation en fournissant une attestation officielle d’expérience professionnelle de plus de 5 ans dans la même branche d’activité. Il s’agit généralement d’une « attestation CE ».

      Autorités Nationales compétentes pour délivrer une Attestation CE (directive N°99/42/CEE du 07 juin 1999)

      Pour les activités d’artisan et de commerçant, il s’agit généralement de l’attestation quant aux activités exercées dans le pays de provenance conformément à la directive no 99/42/CEE du 7 juin 1999.

      Les autorités nationales compétentes pour délivrer l’attestation sont :

    • Allemagne : Handwerkskammern oder Industrie- und Handelskammern

    • Belgique : Service Public Fédéral, Economie, P.M.E., Classes Moyennes & Energie

    • Danemark : Industriradet

    • Estonie : Estonian Ministery of Education and Research

    • France : Chambre des Métiers ou Chambre de Commerce et de l’Industrie (pour les indépendants) et la Direction Départementale du travail et de l’emploi (pour les salariés)

    • Grande Bretagne : Department for education and skills

    • Grèce : Chambre des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises

    • Italie : Camera di commercio,industria, artigianato e agricoltura (pour les indépendants) et Ispettorati provinciali del lavoro (pour les salariés)

    • Irlande : FAS, Training and Employment Authority (certificate of experience Unit)

    • Pay-Bas : Hoofbedrijfschap ambachten

    • Portugal : Confederaçâo da Indûstria Portuguesa (pour les independents)

      et la Inspecçâo do trabalho ou Conferaçao do Comercio portugues (pour les salariés)

    • Pologne : Ministertwo Gospodarki i Pracy

      Pour les activités de transporteur, il s’agit de l’attestation quant aux activités exercées dans le pays de provenance conformément à la directive no96/26/CEE du 29 avril 1996.

      Les autorités nationales compétentes pour délivrer l’attestation sont :

    • Belgique : le Ministère des Transports à Bruxelles

    • Allemagne : Industrie- und Handelskammer

    • France : le Ministère des Transports [Source : Ministère des Classes Moyennes]

Etablissement stable

L’autorisation d’établissement est délivrée pour société au nom d’une personne physique. En conséquence, cette société doit obligatoirement avoir un établissement stable au Luxembourg répondant aux exigences de la loi sur l’établissement du 02 septembre 2011. C’est pourquoi aujourd’hui, il est impossible d’envisager la constitution d’une société au Luxembourg ayant vocation à faire du commerce (c’est à dire à établir des factures entre la société et des clients) sans avoir un vrai bureau physique et privatif.

Notre assistance

L’activité d’une société ne peut pas démarrer tant que cette dernière n’a pas obtenu son autorisation d’établissement, c’est pourquoi il est primordial d’attacher une grande importance à la constitution de ce dossier afin de mettre tous les atouts de votre côté.

Notre société, forte de son expérience, sera en mesure de vous assister dans ce processus qui résulte d’une étude au cas par cas afin de déterminer les conditions globales de fonctionnement de votre entreprise.

En effet, en fonction de vos attentes, nous établirons plusieurs solutions pour obtenir cette autorisation.

Ce dossier diffère si votre entreprise est une Sarl ou une SA, si le gérant est

associé ou non, si le statut de salarié du gérant ou de l’administrateur est requis etc…

Nous constituons pour vous un dossier complet pour votre demande : Pièce d’identité, Justificatif de domicile, Justificatif de diplôme ou d’expérience professionnelle, votre attestation d’honorabilité, le bail de location de vos bureaux, les statuts de votre société etc…

Chaque dossier est introduit par courrier recommandé afin de s’assurer d’un délai de traitement optimal. En règle générale, pour un dossier complet, l’acceptation de l’autorisation est faite sous 10 jours en moyenne.

Notre conclusion

Même si l’établissement d’une nouvelle société est libre d’accès dans la théorie, nous constatons dans la pratique qu’un certain nombre de points peuvent venir entraver votre projet.

C’est la raison pour laquelle il est important de bien définir ensemble la méthode de travail que vous allez adopter dans votre entreprise.

Prenons un exemple : Vous habitez à Paris, Bruxelles, Madrid, … et vous souhaitez développer une nouvelle société à partir du Luxembourg.

La législation européenne vous autorise tout naturellement à faire cela; le Luxembourg aussi.

… Mais il faut avoir conscience des nuances : En effet, si vous avez le droit de constituer une nouvelle société, son exploitation est, elle, soumise à la condition d’autorisation de commerce.

Et là, vous allez rencontrer divers types de blocages : peut-être un blocage de qualification, mais surtout un blocage au niveau de la gestion.

En effet, dans la modification de la loi de l’établissement du 02 septembre 2011, le législateur a introduit une notion de localisation de la gestion de l’entreprise et de présence régulière de la gérance. Or, en habitant Paris, Bruxelles, ou Madrid, il va être difficile de justifier que vous soyez toujours présent au Luxembourg !!!

Aussi, la demande d’autorisation risque d’être refusée.

Voilà pourquoi il est judicieux de prendre contact avec nous pour fixer une entrevue afin de mettre en place tous les éléments pour assurer la pérennité de votre entreprise et trouver les meilleures solutions au meilleur coût.

 

 

How to set up a firm in Luxembourg.

How to set up a new firm in Luxembourg.

Decide to set up a new company, maybe your first company, is a thing to study well from the start. But from the reflection to the outcome, the path is not always smooth sailing. Businesses, governments, local, literature … all possibility of ending up in the wall.

To avoid this, our team proposes to follow with you or for you every step of your great creation projects. Sit back comfortably, tell us what you want to do and we will do all. From the choice of various professionals that work in the actual startup of your business through the completing administrative paperwork, we will make your life easier and make you win a very precious time, so you can concentrate on your real job!
We will advise professionals that we selected for their efficiency, we will inform you which documents you’ll need to do for your job, we will assist you to fill out paperwork and more. Discover in details the various steps by visiting the links that are above.

Before thinking …
Whatever the case, creating your first company, growing your business in the Benelux, re-organization of your group of companies, participations acquired in other companies, a great reflection need to be provided before anything. It is important to have a good visibility of your projects to determine the best solution for your expectations.
We will be extremely attentive to your needs, your specifications and goals. So we can give you our opinion on the feasibility at a Luxembourg company level.
We will review the tax side (optimizing your taxes), the social side (cost optimization of your staff) and the commercial side (optimizing your net margins). We determine the points on which we can find an optimization but also constraints to your projects.

Just do it !
Once your projects are clearly established, we can begin together to structure the foundation of your new company.
It all starts with the development of a draft for the statutes of the society.
We’ll detail the names of shareholders, the company name, the distribution of shares, the members of the management bodies, the headquarter, the date of holding the Annual General Meeting, if necessary the presence of the auditor, the management board etc… Regarding the name of the company, we will verify the uniqueness of the name to RCS because each company must have a unique name in Luxembourg.

Collection of Documents
Before continuing, we will collect a set of documents that will be needed for the bank, the notary and for us. You will find a complete list of required documents. These documents will be used to make an identification of beneficiaries whether as natural or legal person. We must always know the last physical beneficiary. This approach is clearly inscribed in the circular issued by the CSSF (Financial Sector Supervisory Commission), on the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. If you would like more information on this subject, we invite you to read this document of the CSSF : ( http://www.cssf.lu/en/supervision/financial-crime/aml-ctf/ )

List of the required documents :

Identity documents
– Natural person :
Obviously, we’ll need for all the steps all stakeholders’ identity documents in your draft constitution from the moment they occupy a role in company: shareholders, manager, director etc… Accepted identification documents are passport and national identity card. Check that the validity dates are always good.
! ! ! For information, the driving license is not a valid ID in Luxembourg.
– Legal person
We will need the identity of all individual entities that are beneficial owners of companies involved in the constitution. In addition, we will also need a newest extract from the trade register of companies in the country in which the company operates, and the statutes of the companies.

Proof of address
It is possible to provide several types of documents to verify your address.
This can be a certificate of residence, a document typically published by the municipality in which you reside, but also an electricity bill or internet subscription. For Belgian residents, it is possible to provide an extract of their identity card if it dates back less than a month.

Criminal record extract
It is imperative to provide a criminal record dating back less than 3 months. This document is required to introduce the trade permit application in Luxembourg. In many countries, it is possible to make this request directly through the Internet.

Tax notice
It is a document that is increasingly asked to justify the consistency of your purchases or investments. It will be necessary to provide this document for example in building a civil society. Indeed, this is part of the initiatives against money laundering. For example, if you make a cash purchase of 100.000 euros, but your tax notice highlights a non-taxation, it does bode well for the rest of your file…

Notarial certificate of non-bankruptcy
This is a statement made under oath before a notary in which you state not being personal bankruptcy and this not limited in time or space. If you are having difficulty obtaining this document, please contact us.
Here is a sample declaration of type:

CERTIFICATE

I, Master Name and Notary name, holds a Notarial Office at the Office Address
Certifies and hereby certify,

that Mr. Full name, residing at the Address and born in the Birthplace the Birthday

Justifying his identity by producing his ID number: Reference of the ID
Acting in his own name,

Told me, under oath, that at no time and in no place, until today, been the subject of a judgment declaring personal bankruptcy.
In witness whereof, I have issued this certificate to serve and to assert that right.
City of the notary office, the Date

Qualifications
Many professions are regulated in Luxembourg. The simple fact of wanting to trade requires a trade permit. For this grail, it will be necessary to justify either a higher education diploma or an equivalency according to European directives. It will also be possible for people who do not have a high school diploma, provide a certificate of professional experience of at least 5 years in the activity for which you wish to obtain a permit.

! ! ! All documents must be supplied in « ORIGINAL » version. Some documents require a little time to obtain, so do not hesitate to make requests at the earliest to be sure to have everything on time.

Bank account
It is now that we’re going to need some of the documents to proceed with the opening of a bank account in the name of the future company.
We will have a detailed description of your activities, present the people involved and provide the draft statutes of association to one of our contacts with our banking partner. This one will study your file and submit it to the compliance department (department in charge of assessing whether the files are compliant with the specifications of the bank). Once the acceptance is received, the financial advisor will proceed to open the account in order to proceed with the filing of the necessary funds in the company’s capital, i.e. 12.500,- € for LLC, or 31.000,- € for an Ltd .

The funds can be made in different ways: either in cash (will then be necessary proof from a bank of the origin of such funds) or by bank transfer or by check (beware, the check processing time is long enough and a fee is charged).

When the funds are available on the bank account, we receive a blocking certificate money for the company addressed to the notary, proof proving that social capital is at the disposal of the company.

Details of a LLC :

Method of establishment
The LLC may not proceed with the public offering of shares. It may only be incorporated by an act of incorporation signed by a notary by the founder or founders.
Proxy: All future shareholders do not have to appear personally before a notary. They may be represented by representatives provided with proxies.
Constitution
It includes the following statements:
• Identity of the signatories of the act;
• Legal form and name;
• Headquarters;
• Corporate purpose;
• Amount of subscribed capital and paid-up capital;
• Duration of the company;
Note that all subsequent modifications of the above points will require a new mandatory appearance before the notary (with the exception of point 1). This is what we call a statutory modification.
Denomination
The LLC can adopt as name:
• A particular denomination;
• The designation of its corporate purpose;
• A name with the name of one or more associates;
The name must be strictly unique to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Corporate Purpose
The purpose must reflect the actual activity to be performed within the company. It is based on this corporate purpose that will be assigned the trade permit. This corporate purpose can be social commerce activity (purchase, sale, trading of products or services), financial activities (Detention and optimization of Securities or Shares) or both at once.
Number of associates
To form an LLC, one associate is enough and the maximum number is set by law at 40 persons (natural or legal). Shareholders can be natural or legal persons (if authorized by their statutes to do such an operation).
No residency or citizenship is required. This means that a Luxembourg LLC can be formed by a non-resident or a company established in another country.
Social capital
The minimum amount of share capital is set at 12.500 €. This capital must be fully subscribed and paid. It is possible to build this capital either in cash or by contribution in kind. Given the character « Intuitu Personae », it is not necessary to have an auditor ratio for real and personal property brought to the capital.
Shares
The representing shares in the capital are always nominatives. They are represented by nominative participation certificates attesting to their registration in the LLC. The shares are freely transferable between associates. In case of transmission by death, the heirs are treated as associates. The assignment or transfer to third parties requires the approval of the general meeting, acting by a majority of ¾ of the share capital. The assignment must be established by notarial deed or by private deed. It will be published in the Register of Companies (RCS).
General Meeting
The holding is not required as the number of associates is not more than 25.
Management
The manager or managers are appointed by the associates, either in the deed of incorporation or subsequently. The manager or managers may be natural or legal persons. The law does not impose a condition of nationality or residence.
It should be noted that the trade permit is subject to various conditions, including personal repute and professional qualifications of the management.
The manager or managers are appointed for a limited time or indefinitely. In both cases, unless otherwise statutory provision, they can only be dismissed for legitimate reasons.
The manager has all powers that are not reserved to the General Meeting, to perform the acts necessary for the realization of the corporate purpose.
Status of the Manager
The management may be made free of charge or paid.
If the management is provided by the majority shareholder, the manager will adopt the self-employed. He will ensure himself the payment of social security contributions. If the management is occupied by a partner with strictly less than 25% of the shares (that is to say 24%), then it may be an employee of the company.
External Auditor
Only LLCs with more than 25 shareholders are subject to mandatory supervision by one or more auditors, shareholders or not, appointed in the memorandum of establishment. Any modification of one or more auditors shall be published in the RCS.

Details of a Ltd:

Method of establishment
The Ltd may be formed in two ways: by direct incorporation or by public subscription. Here we will discuss only about the first procedure. The direct incorporation process is to appear before the notary at least two shareholders, after the payment of their contributions.
Proxy: All future shareholders don’t have to appear personally before a notary. They may be represented by representatives provided with proxies.
Constitution
It includes the following statements:
• Identity of the signatories of the act;
• Legal form and name;
• Headquarters;
• Corporate purpose;
• Amount of subscribed capital and paid-up capital;
• Authorized capital if the procedure is retained;
• Categories and form of shares;
• If contributions in kind: name of the contributor and report of the external inputs;
• Possible advantages granted to founders;
• Number of shares excluding capital and related rights;
• Structure of the organs of the Ltd;
• Duration of the company;
Note that all subsequent changes of the previous points automatically require further appearance by the notary (with the exception of point 1). This is what we call a statutory modification.
Denomination
The Ltd can adopt as name:
• A particular denomination;
• The designation of its corporate purpose;
The name must be strictly unique to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Corporate Purpose
The corporate purpose must reflect the actual activity to be performed within the company. It is based on this corporate purpose that will be assigned the trade permit . This corporate purpose can be social commerce activity (buying, selling, trading products or services), financial activities (Detention and optimization of Securities or Shares) or both at once.
Number of shareholders
To form a Ltd, a single shareholder is enough and the maximum number is not fixed by law. Shareholders can be natural or legal persons (if authorized by their statutes to do such an operation).
No residency or citizenship is required. This means that a Luxembourg Ltd may be formed by a non-resident or a company established in another country.
Social capital
The minimum amount of share capital is set at € 31,000.00. It can be expressed in euro or in foreign currency, if it is convertible. This capital must be fully subscribed.
Each share must be paid at least a quarter or by payment in cash or by contributions in kind (ratio of an external input required).
Legally, the contributors in kind are required to release all of their subscription within five years, while cash providers have no time limit. Nevertheless, according to the needs of the company’s operations, the Board of Directors made the calls necessary funds to subscribers.
The shares
The shares representing the capital may be nominative or to bearer. They may nevertheless become to bearer when the capital was fully paid. Unless otherwise provided in the statutes, all shares have equal rights and each share entitled to one vote.
The shares are freely transferable.
General Meeting of Shareholders
The general meeting of shareholders shall have the widest powers to adopt or ratify any action concerning the Company.

There are two types of assembly:

· Ordinary General Meeting :

It is called at least once a year, date and time listed in the statutes. The annual accounts are presented, and the report of the directors and commissioners. It discusses the balance sheet and determines the allocation of the results. It also discharges the directors for their management and carries out any statutory appointments.

· Extraordinary General Meeting :

Board of Directors and Commissioners have the right to convene a general meeting at any time if they consider that the corporate interest requires so; they have an obligation to do so, or within a month when 1 / 5th of shareholders upon written request indicating the agenda, either within two months, when the loss reached half of the share capital.
Board of directors
The Board of Directors consists of a minimum of 3 members, shareholders or not. In the case of a single shareholder, the administrator number can be limited to 1 if the status provide for this scenario. The directors may be natural or legal persons. The law does not impose a condition of nationality or residence.
It should be noted that the trade permit is subject to various conditions, including personal repute and professional qualifications of directors.
Directors are appointed by the general meeting of shareholders for a maximum term of 6 years, but renewable.
The board of directors has all powers that are not reserved to the General Meeting, to perform the acts necessary for the realization of the corporate purpose. Any statutory clause limiting the powers of the directors would be binding on third parties. Generally, the Board of directors delegates, with the agreement of the general meeting, the company’s daily management to a « managing director ». It is the latter which will be holder of the trade permit.
External Auditor
The internal monitoring of the company is entrusted to one or more auditors appointed by the general meeting of shareholders for a term of up to 6 years, but renewable. Commissioners may be natural or legal persons.
The commissioners have unlimited right of supervision and control of the financial and accounting situation. They should receive the Board of Directors twice a year on the assets and liabilities of the company, they control the annual accounts and the annual report before submission to the general meeting and they report on their work at the General Meeting.
Monitoring by one or more auditor (s) of companies is mandatory in any society which, at the balance sheet date exceeds the limits of two of the three following criteria:
• Balance sheet total: 3,125 million EUR
• Net sales: 6,25 million EUR
• Staff: 50

The trade permit :

The regulation of the activities
All commercial, craft and industrial activities have been subject to the condition of obtaining a trade permit issued by the Ministry of Middle Classes (for general inquiries). The delivery may need the approval of other ministries such as Economy and Foreign Trade, the Ministry of Justice or the one of Transport.

Deliverance conditions
The pre-requisites for obtaining the trade permit are:
• Legal conditions of qualification and respectability.
• Presence of a real permanent establishment for the society (Not a mailbox).
It should be noted that the trade permit is issued to a natural person, not a legal one. Therefore, it is valid as the manager or the CEO in the daily management in the company remains unchanged. In case of holder’s departure of the trade permit, it is imperative to make a new request and within a maximum period of 6 months.
A person may hold several trade permit to herself alone. Conversely, it is also possible to have multiple people within the same company bearers of a trade permit for different business sectors.

Modalities
Respectability
The future holder of a trade permit must demonstrate his respectability. To do this, he must firstly provide a criminal record. This record does not highlight convictions to question his integrity or any deprivation of his civil rights and that regardless of the country of origin. If such a statement appeared and that the sentence has been served, this should not be an obstacle to the deliverance.
He must also provide a notarial certificate of non-bankruptcy personal not limited in time or space. This certificate takes the form of a statement made under oath before a notary that the person is not personally bankrupt.
Qualifications
Depending on the activity you wish to exercise, it will be asked a qualifying justification in the said field. One of the simplest ways is to produce a diploma of higher education in relation to the activity pursued. If you wish to legal advice, you will be asked a Master in Law for example.
However, it is also possible to obtain a trade permit by providing an official certificate of professional experience of more than 5 years in the same activity. This is usually an « EC certificate ».

National competent authorities to issue an EC certificate (Directive No. 99/42 / EEC of 7 June 1999)

For artisan activities and tradespeople, this is typically the certificate as to the activities in the country of origin in accordance with Directive No 99/42 / EEC of 7 June 1999.

The national competent authorities for issuing the certificate are:
• Germany : Handwerkskammern oder Industrie- und Handelskammern
• Belgium : Service Public Fédéral, Economie, P.M.E., Classes Moyennes & Energie
• Denmark : Industriradet
• Estonia : Estonian Ministery of Education and Research
• France : Chambre des Métiers ou Chambre de Commerce et de l’Industrie (pour les indépendants) et la Direction Départementale du travail et de l’emploi (pour les salariés)
• Great Britain : Department for education and skills
• Greece : Chambre des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
• Italy : Camera di commercio,industria, artigianato e agricoltura (pour les indépendants) et Ispettorati provinciali del lavoro (pour les salariés)
• Ireland : FAS, Training and Employment Authority (certificate of experience Unit)
• Netherlands : Hoofbedrijfschap ambachten
• Portugal : Confederaçâo da Indûstria Portuguesa (pour les independents) et la Inspecçâo do trabalho ou Conferaçao do Comercio portugues (pour les salariés)
• Poland : Ministertwo Gospodarki i Pracy

For the transport activities, this is the certificate about the activities in the country of origin in accordance with Directive NO96 / 26 / EEC of 29 April 1996.

The national competent authorities for issuing the certificate are:
• Belgium : le Ministère des Transports à Bruxelles
• Germany : Industrie- und Handelskammer
• France : le Ministère des Transports
[Source : Ministry of Middle Classes]

Stable establishment
The trade permit is issued for society in the name of a natural person. Consequently, the company must have a permanent establishment in Luxembourg responding to the requirements of the law on the establishment of 2 September 2011. So today, it is impossible to consider the establishment of a company in Luxembourg aspiring to do business (i.e. to issue invoices between the company and customers) without a real physical and private office.

The notary
We have also conveyed the same information to the notary with whom we work so that his study could write the definitive statutes of the company and verify that they are conform to the Luxembourg regulations. The notary is the only professional in Luxembourg allowed to form a company (this applies to commercial and financial companies).
Once the statutes are written, we all fix an appointment to present you before the notary to sign the statutes so that the notary can then send all documents to the administrations in charge of corporate management in particular Trading Companies Registry (RCS). After signature, the notary will hand us a certificate of release of capital funds to bank so that the company can immediately dispose of his cash.
Your company is established ! ! !
It exists officially.
Of course our work is not finished yet because even if legally speaking your company is existing, it is not yet ready to trade.
We’ll have to wait about 2 – 3 weeks for the latter to be registered at the RCS with an identification number.
The operations to follow are: the original listing application to the system of EU VAT, the application of a trade permit to start and membership of the Joint Centre of Social Security.

The good management :

The establishment
Good management of your company begins even before operations begin. Since the creation …
We will try to draw your attention to some points that you should always keep in mind to ensure the durability of your business. We will start with some ideas that we must absolutely give up!

Fictitious company or mailbox
This is unfortunately the most commonly acquired idea !

« Now that I have a company in Luxembourg, I will no longer pay tax »

WRONG !!!

Luxembourg is not a tax haven, but a country with a moderate taxation. If you are looking to not pay taxes, go your way and go to the side of the offshore companies. Please be aware that today, do not pay a minimum tax is utopian! Luxembourg companies are fully taxable. However, taxation is less heavy than some other neighboring countries.
« For my business, I do not need Office, but just a domiciliation/mailbox because either I work from home, either I am frequently on the move. »

WRONG !!!

A corporation must have necessarily a physical, private office and allows for further commercial activity defined in the corporate purpose of the company. This is very clearly defined in the law on the establishment in Luxembourg from the 02 September 2011. Otherwise, you will be carrying illegally because you will not be able to get your trade permit to do business in Luxembourg.

Many have interpreted this requirement to have a physical office as punishment because obviously this creates more substantial costs than a domiciliation. In our view, we believe that this is something beneficial for the client. In large number of cases, the company’s commercial activity takes place in a neighboring country, maybe even in the country where you currently reside. However, the tax administrations of neighboring countries have an unfortunate tendency to want to impose anything that happens on their territory. The first angle is generally the requalification of the permanent establishment of your company, i.e. they will try to show that you manage your company from home (as in our example). To have maximum incriminating, the administrations will apply for European cooperation in Luxembourg so that it can truly determine the existence (or not) of the company. If the Luxembourg authorities come to check your company and they realize that the head office is in domiciliary center or even your office is always closed, they will take steps to remedy one hand and close your company and moreover transmit information like what they found no local activity of the company.

To defend the economic reality of your company in Luxembourg, it is not enough to just have one office in a business center. You have to truly live this company. And that means several things. First, of course, have all the documents in this office showing real activity of the company. Second, the company’s manager must be regularly present in Luxembourg to perform all the common management operations such as sending invoices, vendor payments, marketing development, organization of meetings etc… By doing all that, which ultimately reflects a real business, you build consistency in your structure, key elements in the event of administrative control.

Good habits

A good management is not something that should be done occasionally, but throughout the life of your business. Naturally, you must take into consideration the size of the structure to adopt the good organization. A big company can put more means at its disposal that small business hiring a person. For large projects with vocation to international development, we strongly advise the establishment of employees to monitor daily operations. Having a company in Luxembourg involves organization and costs of the organization, but it takes a minimum of consistency to ensure consistency of arrangements. It is inconceivable to currently still see companies who transit hundreds of millions of euros by Luxembourg and renting an office of 5 m² without anybody inside…

It is important to define a person who will be in charge of the daily management. This person will come as regularly as possible to the office to handle mail, update company documents with customer’s specifications, suppliers, invoices of purchases and sales, which will handle the management of the phone, to prepare the documents for accounting etc…

« I will take care of administrative files later because I do not have time, I have to develop my business. »

In companies with small and medium sizes, we often find that executive or entrepreneur will devote his time primarily to commercial development rather than holding its administrative records and that is all natural. But it is a trap to avoid. In Luxembourg as in other European countries, there is an administrative schedule to comply with the filing statement to be accompanied by a numbers of publication. But if the documents are not updated, your accountant will not be able to arrange which will result in fines imposed by the different administrations as Direct Taxation (IS) or Recording and Domains (VAT). If you accumulate too many fines, besides the fact that it will cost you, it will mainly trigger alerts about your company that may lead to an accounting control, which believe us will make you lose much more time and money if the documents had been processed in a timely manner.
Marie-Christine Gutiérrez Breesch
Associée.
Sources :
La Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier : www.cssf.lu
Le guide administratif du Luxembourg : www.guichet.lu
Le centre d’affaires Luxbusiness.

Marie-christine Gutiérrez Breesch

Associée Cabinet Gutiérrez Breesch Presidente wearelux.org